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Title: Comparison of two- and three-dimensional methods for analysis of trunk kinematic variables in the golf swing
Authors: Smith, Aimee C.
Roberts, Jonathan R.
Wallace, Eric S.
Kong, Pui W.
Forrester, Stephanie E.
Keywords: Golf
Trunk kinematic variables
Issue Date: 2016
Publisher: © Human Kinetics
Citation: SMITH, A.C. ... et al, 2016. Comparison of two- and three-dimensional methods for analysis of trunk kinematic variables in the golf swing. Journal of Applied Biomechanics, 32 (1), pp. 23 - 31.
Abstract: Two-dimensional methods have been used to compute trunk kinematic variables (flexion/extension, lateral bend, axial rotation) and X-factor (difference in axial rotation between trunk and pelvis) during the golf swing. Recent X-factor studies advocated three-dimensional (3D) analysis due to the errors associated with two-dimensional (2D) methods, but this has not been investigated for all trunk kinematic variables. The purpose of this study was to compare trunk kinematic variables and X-factor calculated by 2D and 3D methods to examine how different approaches influenced their profiles during the swing. Trunk kinematic variables and X-factor were calculated for golfers from vectors projected onto the global laboratory planes and from 3D segment angles. Trunk kinematic variable profiles were similar in shape; however, there were statistically significant differences in trunk flexion (-6.5 ± 3.6°) at top of backswing and trunk right-side lateral bend (8.7 ± 2.9°) at impact. Differences between 2D and 3D X-factor (approximately 16°) could largely be explained by projection errors introduced to the 2D analysis through flexion and lateral bend of the trunk and pelvis segments. The results support the need to use a 3D method for kinematic data calculation to accurately analyze the golf swing.
Description: This is the as accepted for publication version of a paper subsequently published in the Journal of Applied Biomechanics © Human Kinetics. The definitive version is available at: http://dx.doi.org/10.1123/jab.2015-0032
Version: Accepted for publication
DOI: 10.1123/jab.2015-0032
URI: https://dspace.lboro.ac.uk/2134/21663
Publisher Link: http://dx.doi.org/10.1123/jab.2015-0032
ISSN: 1065-8483
Appears in Collections:Published Articles (Mechanical, Electrical and Manufacturing Engineering)

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