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Title: Sleep, pain and daytime functioning in patients with fibromyalgia syndrome and osteoarthritis: a cross-sectional comparative study
Authors: Yeung, Wai
Keywords: Fibromyalgia
Osteoarthritis
Sleep
Actigraphy
Polysomnography
Spectral analysis
Pain
Alpha-delta
Eeg
Issue Date: 2016
Publisher: © Wai-Kent Yeung
Abstract: Fibromyalgia syndrome (FMS) is a disorder characterised by chronic widespread pain, non-restorative sleep, fatigue and daytime dysfunction. Occurring in 2-5% of the population, the aetiology is largely unknown. Sleep dysfunction occurs in over 90% of FMS patients. While research has shown that both the macrostructure and microstructure of sleep may be altered, there remain inconsistencies in the polysomnographic (PSG) findings, and wide variations in methodological approaches. Few studies have controlled for symptom duration or the time elapsed between diagnosis and PSG sleep assessments. In addition, while psychometric analyses have suggested a distinctive FMS psychological profile (which includes higher levels of depressive symptoms, anxiety and fatigue) few studies have simultaneously, and thoroughly examined sleep and psychological status in the same participants. A frequently reported alteration found in the sleep microstructure of FMS patients is the alpha-delta sleep anomaly, characterised by an increase in alpha wave activity during slow wave sleep. Originally considered a possible neurological contribution to FMS, whether the alpha-delta sleep anomaly is fundamental to the development of fibromyalgia syndrome, or results mainly from the pain experience of FMS patients remains unknown. No previous study has directly compared the sleep of FMS and other (non-FMS) patients experiencing similar levels of chronic pain and sleep dysfunction. The present study was designed to examine sleep macrostructure and microstructure in FMS patients, and evaluate the role of the alpha-delta sleep anomaly as either a possible contributor to fibromyalgia syndrome, or a likely consequence of pain experience. In order to explore these relationships, detailed sleep, activity and psychological profiles were compared in 3 groups: 1) FMS patients (n = 19); 2) osteoarthritis patients with sleep disturbance (n = 17); and non-clinical (normal healthy) adults (n = 10). In order to standardise diagnostic reliability and symptom chronicity, the FMS group was recruited from a single rheumatology facility immediately following diagnosis. Guided by a series of formal research questions, analyses compared sleep macrostructure (using American Academy of Sleep Medicine criteria), sleep microstructure (using spectral analysis), and a range of psychological variables (including pain experience, sleepiness, fatigue, depression, anxiety, perceived social support, health locus of control, pain catastrophizing and personality). The results indicated that the alpha-delta sleep anomaly is not unique to FMS, but appears to be a feature found in the sleep of normal healthy adults and (to a greater extent) those with FMS and osteoarthritis. The incidence of the anomaly was statistically similar in both clinical (FMS and osteoarthritis) groups, a pattern consistent of its being a secondary feature of pain, rather than a primary abnormality of FMS. Overall, the psychometric assessments of state and trait anxiety and depression better discriminated between the three groups than did the sleep variables. Nevertheless, on measures of sleep, perceived social support, health locus of control, and pain catastrophizing, FMS and osteoarthritis patients were not significantly different, though both clinical groups differed on these variables from healthy controls.
Description: A Doctoral Thesis. Submitted in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the award of Doctor of Philosophy of Loughborough University.
Sponsor: Trafford General Hospital Research Fund
URI: https://dspace.lboro.ac.uk/2134/21798
Appears in Collections:PhD Theses (Sport, Exercise and Health Sciences)

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