JACKSON, R., 2003. Pre-performance routine consistency: temporal analysis of goal kicking in the Rugby Union World Cup. Journal of Sports Sciences, DOI: 10.1080/0264041031000140301.
This study examined the consistency of pre-performance routines in international rugby union goal kickers on kicks of varying difficulty and under different amounts of situational pressure. Concentration times and physical preparation times were calculated from video recordings of the 572 place kicks taken during the 1999 Rugby Union World Cup. In contrast to the view that performers should seek consistent pre-performance routine times, the results revealed a strong positive relationship between kick difficulty and concentration time. Analysis of the effect of situational pressure, determined by the difference in score before the kick, revealed that players tended to have longer concentration times and shorter physical preparation times when the scores were close. There were no differences between the best and worst kickers in the tournament on routine time, consistency or rhythmicity. The view that increasing the temporal consistency of a routine will result in improved performance is challenged.