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Title: Auxiliary fields and the sign problem
Authors: Samson, J.H.
Issue Date: 1995
Publisher: © World Scientific
Citation: SAMSON, J.H., 1995. Auxiliary fields and the sign problem. International Journal of Modern Physics C6, pp. 427-465
Abstract: The auxiliary-field quantum Monte Carlo method is reviewed. The Hubbard-Stratonovich transformation converts an interacting Hamiltonian into a non-interacting Hamiltonian in a time-dependent stochastic field, allowing calculation of the resulting functional integral by Monte Carlo methods. The method is presented in a sufficiently general form to be applicable to any Hamiltonian with oneand two-body terms, with special reference to the Heisenberg model and one- and many-band Hubbard models. Many physical correlation functions can be related to correlation functions of the auxiliary field; general results are given here. Issues relating to the choice of auxiliary fields are addressed; operator product identities change the relative dimensionalities of the attractive and repulsive parts of the interaction. Frequently the integrand is not positive-definite, rendering numerical evaluation unstable. If the auxiliary field violates time-reversal invariance, the integrand is complex and this sign problem becomes a phase problem. The origin of this sign or phase is examined from a number of geometrical and other viewpoints and illustrated by simple examples: the phase problem by the spin 1/2 Heisenberg model, and the sign problem by the attractive SU(N) Hubbard model on a triangular molecule with negative hopping integrals. In the latter case, widely studied in the Jahn Teller literature, the sign is due neither to fermions nor spin, but to frustration. This system is used to illustrate a number of suggested interpretations of the sign problem.
Description: This article was published in the journal, International Journal of Modern Physics [© World Scientific] and is available at: http://www.worldscinet.com/ijmpc/ijmpc.shtml.
URI: https://dspace.lboro.ac.uk/2134/2225
ISSN: 0129-1831
Appears in Collections:Published Articles (Physics)

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