SHI, Q. ... et al, 2016. Effect of machining on shear-zone microstructure in Ti-15V-3Cr-3Al-3Sn: conventional and ultrasonically assisted turning. Journal of Materials Engineering and Performance, 25 (9), pp. 3766-3773.
This work systematically studied morphology of nano- and microstructures in primary and secondary shear zones of machining chips produced with two different machining methods: conventional and ultrasonically assisted turning. Electron backscatter diffraction and transmission electron microscopy showed that chips had similar microstructures for both machining techniques. The nanostructure in secondary shear zones was less homogeneous than that in primary shear zones. In addition, a heavily deformed layer was formed in a subsurface of Ti-15V-3Cr-3Al-3Sn work-pieces, replicating the microstructure of secondary shear zones of the machining chips, and elongated nanocrystalline grains in this layer were aligned with a tangential direction of turning.