WANG, D. ... et al., 2012. Synthesis of SnO2 nanoparticles with varying particle sizes and
morphologies by hydrothermal method. Advanced Materials Research, 415-417, pp.585-589.
Using ammonia solution and tin chloride as the precursors: tin oxide nanoparticles with different particle sizes and morphologies were synthesised by varying the concentration, heating temperature and ripening time via hydrothermal method. The particles synthesised were characterised by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The TEM micrographs show that rod-like nanoparticles were synthesised when the SnCl 4 solution concentration was less than 1.0 mol/L, which was changed to oval shape when the concentration increased above 2.0 mol/L. Polygonal shaped nanoparticles were observed at 220 °C for 48 hours. It was also found that changing temperature had little effect on the morphology but great influence on the size of the particles, which increased from 10 nm to 120 nm from 160 °C to 220 °C and 12 nm to 55 nm from 6 h to 48 h at 200 °C, respectively. XRD patterns indicated that all of nanoparticles synthesised were tin oxide.