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This paper aims to systematically examine the impact of Chinese migrants on the economic activities of indigenous Chinese firms from two dimensions: foreign direct investment (FDI) by ethnic Chinese (ECI) and returnees. Using a unique dataset for firms in Zhongguancun Science Park, Beijing, we carry out an in-depth empirical study on the effects of ECI and returnees on indigenous Chinese firms’ productivity, exports and R&D in comparison with the effects of non-ethnic Chinese FDI. The findings have important policy implications
This is an open access article published by Wiley and distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution licence, https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/
Financial support from the Economic and Social Research Council (RES-238-25-0027) and the National Natural Science Foundation of China (#71172020) is gratefully acknowledged.