Pre-clinical studies are a necessary step in the process of material and drug testing. For this, high-throughput monolayer cell cultures are conducted followed by in vivo animal experiments. However, animal use is ethically questionable and in many cases yields misleading results. In vitro three dimensional (3D) tissue engineered (TE) structures have been shown to better represent in vivo tissue morphology and biochemical pathways than monolayer cultures and are less ethically questionable than animal models. Therefore, an in vitro biomimetic musculoskeletal junction (MSKjct) is required as a more relevant pre-clinical testbed. This thesis describes the steps taken to co-culture 3D TE skeletal muscle and bone models as a material testbed and towards an in vitro MSKjct. [Continues.]
A Doctoral Thesis. Submitted in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the award of Doctor of Philosophy of Loughborough University.