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Title: Combined lubricant-surface system perspective: multi-scale numerical-experimental investigation
Authors: Leighton, Michael
Nicholls, Thomas A.
De la Cruz, Miguel
Rahmani, Ramin
Rahnejat, Homer
Keywords: Friction
Surface topography
Lubricant rheology
Friction modifying additives
Surface-adsorbed films
Lateral force microscopy
Numerical-experimental evaluation
Issue Date: 2017
Publisher: SAGE IMechE
Citation: LEIGHTON, M. ... et al., 2017. Combined lubricant-surface system perspective: multi-scale numerical-experimental investigation. Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers. Part J, Journal of Engineering Tribology, 231(7), pp.910-924.
Abstract: Frictional losses are one of the main causes of reduced energy efficiency in all machines and mechanisms. In particular, there is mounting pressure upon manufacturers of all forms of vehicle to comply with increasingly stringent legislation and directives with regard to harmful emissions. Therefore, reduction of friction has become an imperative issue. The traditional approach of dealing with surface material and lubricant formulation in isolation has been replaced by a lubricant–surface system approach. This paper presents multi-scale experimentation from nano/meso-scale lateral force microscopy of ultra-thin surface adsorbed films through to micro-scale precision sliding tribometry to investigate lubricant–surface friction optimisation within the mixed regime of lubrication, using lubricants with different organic and inorganic friction modifying species. These affect the parameters of the system, commonly used as input to models for mixed and boundary regimes of lubrication. Therefore, the precise measurement of these parameters at different physical scales is important. The study also makes use of detailed numerical predictions at micro-scale through combined solution of the average Reynolds equation as well as interaction of wetted asperities in mixed and boundary regimes of lubrication. Good agreement is found between the predictions and measurements at micro-scale tribometric interactions. Furthermore, the same trends are observed in testing across the physical scales.
Description: This work is made available according to the conditions of the Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 Unported (CC BY 3.0) licence. Full details of this licence are available at: http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/
Sponsor: The authors would like to express their gratitude to the Engineering and Physical Sciences Research Council (EPSRC) for the sponsorship of this research under the Encyclopaedic Program Grant (www. encyclopaedic.org).
Version: Published
DOI: 10.1177/1350650116683784
URI: https://dspace.lboro.ac.uk/2134/23604
Publisher Link: http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/1350650116683784
ISSN: 1350-6501
Appears in Collections:Published Articles (Mechanical, Electrical and Manufacturing Engineering)

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