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Title: Salivary alpha amylase not chromogranin A reflects sympathetic activity: exercise responses in elite male wheelchair athletes with or without cervical spinal cord injury
Authors: Leicht, Christof A.
Paulson, Thomas A.W.
Goosey-Tolfrey, Victoria L.
Bishop, Nicolette
Keywords: Adrenaline
Sympathetic dysfunction
Wheelchair athlete
Wheelchair propulsion
Issue Date: 2017
Publisher: Springer © The Authors
Citation: LEICHT, C.A., 2017. Salivary alpha amylase not chromogranin A reflects sympathetic activity: exercise responses in elite male wheelchair athletes with or without cervical spinal cord injury. Sports Medicine, 3, article 1, DOI: 10.1186/s40798-016-0068-6
Abstract: Background: Salivary alpha-amylase (sAA) and chromogranin A (sCgA) have both been suggested as non-invasive markers for sympathetic nervous system (SNS) activity. A complete cervical spinal cord injury leading to tetraplegia is accompanied with sympathetic dysfunction; the aim of this study was to establish the exercise response of these markers in this in vivo model. Methods: Twenty-six elite male wheelchair athletes (C6-C7 tetraplegia: N=8, T6-L1 paraplegia: N=10 and non spinal cord injured controls: N=8) performed treadmill exercise to exhaustion. Saliva and blood samples were taken pre, post, and 30 min post exercise and analysed for sAA, sCgA and plasma adrenaline concentration, respectively. Results: In all three subgroups, sAA and sCgA were elevated post exercise (P<0.05). Whilst sCgA was not different between subgroups, a group x time interaction for sAA explained the reduced post exercise sAA activity in tetraplegia (162±127 vs 313±99 (paraplegia) and 328±131 U∙mL-1 (controls), P=0.005). The post exercise increase in adrenaline was not apparent in tetraplegia (P=0.74). A significant correlation was found between adrenaline and sAA (r=0.60, P=0.01), but not between adrenaline and sCgA (r=0.06, P=0.79). Conclusions: The blunted post-exercise rise in sAA and adrenaline in tetraplegia implies that both reflect SNS activity to some degree. It is questionable whether sCgA should be used as a marker for SNS activity, both due to the exercise response which is not different between the subgroups and its non-significant relationship with adrenaline.
Description: This is an Open Access article it is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided you give appropriate credit to the original author(s) and the source, provide a link to the Creative Commons license, and indicate if changes were made.
Sponsor: This work was funded by the Peter Harrison Centre for Disability Sport.
Version: Published.
DOI: 10.1186/s40798-016-0068-6
URI: https://dspace.lboro.ac.uk/2134/23607
Publisher Link: http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s40798-016-0068-6
ISSN: 0112-1642
Appears in Collections:Published Articles (Sport, Exercise and Health Sciences)

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