side impact regulation UNECE R95 head injury chest injury crash severity
HASSAN, MORRIS and WELSH, 2006. Some characteristics of side-impact crashes involving modern passenger vehicles. IN: Proceedings of the International Crashworthiness Conference, 4-7 July, Athens
This study examines some characteristics of side impact crashes involving modern passenger cars. The UK National Accident Database (STATS 19) and UK In-depth Accident Database (CCIS) were analysed to determine crash characteristics and injury outcomes in side impacts. UK national accident data shows that clear improvements in injury outcomes in side impacts have been observed when a sample of ‘older’ vehicle designs are compared to ‘newer’ vehicle designs. The same is true in frontal and non-struck side impact crashes (which have been analysed for illustrative purposes).
Analysis of the characteristics of crashes in which serious injury occurs suggests that the conditions in terms of collision speed and height of impact (on the struck vehicle) do not usually match those of the UNECE R95 test specification.
In terms of AIS2+ injury outcomes in modern vehicles, head (28% of the total numbers of AIS2+ injuries to front seat occupants) and chest injuries (22%) still predominate although injuries to the abdomen (10%), upper extremity (14%) and lower extremity (including pelvis 19%) are also observed. When only AIS4+ injuries are considered, head (36%), chest (41.3%) and abdomen injuries (30.5%) comprise the overwhelming majority of injuries.
Injuries to the cerebrum (N=44) make up almost 13% of the entire sample of AIS2+ injuries in side impacts followed by lung injuries (7.7%), skull fractures (7.4%) and pelvic fractures (7.1%).
Implications for future regulatory considerations are discussed.