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Title: Relationships between exercise, smoking habit and mortality in more than 100,000 adults
Authors: O'Donovan, Gary
Hamer, Mark
Stamatakis, Emmanuel
Keywords: Physical activity
Tobacco products
Cardiovascular diseases
Cancer
Issue Date: 2017
Publisher: © Wiley
Citation: O'DONOVAN, G., HAMER, M. and STAMATAKIS, E., 2017. Relationships between exercise, smoking habit and mortality in more than 100,000 adults. International Journal of Cancer, 140(8), pp.1819-1827.
Abstract: Exercise is associated with reduced risks of all-cause, cardiovascular disease (CVD), and cancer mortality; however, the benefits in smokers and ex-smokers are unclear. The aim of this study was to investigate associations between exercise, smoking habit and mortality. Self-reported exercise and smoking, and all-cause, CVD, and cancer mortality were assessed in 106,341 adults in the Health Survey for England and the Scottish Health Survey. There were 9149 deaths from all causes, 2839 from CVD, and 2634 from cancer during 999,948 person-years of follow-up. Greater amounts of exercise were associated with decreases and greater amounts of smoking were associated with increases in the risks of mortality from all causes, CVD and cancer. There was no statistically significant evidence of biological interaction; rather, the relative risks of all-cause mortality were additive. In the subgroup of 26,768 ex-smokers, the all-cause mortality hazard ratio was 0.70 (95% CI: 0.60, 0.80), the CVD mortality hazard ratio was 0.71 (0.55, 092), and the cancer mortality hazard ratio was 0.66 (0.52, 0.84) in those who exercised compared to those who did not. In the subgroup of 28,440 smokers, the all-cause mortality hazard ratio was 0.69 (0.57, 0.83), the CVD mortality hazard ratio was 0.66 (0.45, 0.96), and the cancer mortality hazard ratio was 0.69 (0.51, 0.94) in those who exercised compared to those who did not. Given that an outright ban is unlikely, this study is important because it suggests exercise reduces the risks of all-cause, CVD and cancer mortality by around 30% in smokers and ex-smokers.
Description: This paper is closed access until 21st January 2018.
Sponsor: O’Donovan and Hamer acknowledge support from the National Institute for Health Research Collaboration for Leadership in Applied Health Research and Care – East Midlands (NIHR CLAHRC – EM), Leicester Clinical Trials Unit, and the NIHR Leicester-Loughborough Diet, Lifestyle and Physical Activity Biomedical Research Unit, which is a partnership between University Hospitals of Leicester NHS Trust, Loughborough University and the University of Leicester. Stamatakis is funded by the National Health and Medical Research Council (NHMRC) through a Senior Research Fellowship.
Version: Accepted for publication
DOI: 10.1002/ijc.30611
URI: https://dspace.lboro.ac.uk/2134/23989
Publisher Link: http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ijc.30611
ISSN: 1097-0215
Appears in Collections:Closed Access (Sport, Exercise and Health Sciences)

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