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|Title: ||Engine thermal management with model predictive control|
|Authors: ||Abdul-Jalal, Rifqi I.|
|Keywords: ||Thermal management|
Engine cooling system
Model predictive control
Simulation and modelling
|Issue Date: ||2016|
|Publisher: ||© R.I. Abdul Jalal|
|Abstract: ||The global greenhouse gas CO2 emission from the transportation sector is very significant.To reduce this gas emission, EU has set an average target of not more than 95 CO2/km for new passenger cars by the year 2020. A great reduction is still required to achieve the CO2 emission target in 2020, and many different approaches are being considered. This thesis focuses on the thermal management of the engine as an area that promise significant improvement of fuel efficiency with relatively small changes.
The review of the literature shows that thermal management can improve engine efficiency through the friction reduction, improved air-fuel mixing, reduced heat loss, increased engine volumetric efficiency, suppressed knock, reduce radiator fan speed and reduction of other toxic emissions such as CO, HC and NOx. Like heat loss and friction, most emissions can be reduced in high temperature condition, but this may lead to poor volumetric efficiency and make the engine more prone to knock. The temperature trade-off study is conducted in simulation using a GT-SUITE engine model coupled with the FE in-cylinder wall structure and cooling system. The result is a map of the best operating temperature over engine speed and load. To quantify the benefit of this map, eight driving styles from the legislative and research test cycles are being compared using an immediate application of the optimal temperature, and significant improvements are found for urban style driving, while operation at higher load (motorway style driving) shows only small efficiency gains. The fuel consumption saving predicted in the urban style of driving is more than 4%.
This assess the chance of following the temperature set point over a cycle, the temperature reference is analysed for all eight types of drive cycles using autocorrelation, lag plot and power spectral density. The analysis consistently shows that the highest volatility is recorded in the Artemis Urban Drive Cycle: the autocorrelation disappears after only 5.4 seconds, while the power spectral density shows a drop off around 0.09Hz. This means fast control action is required to implement the optimal temperature before it changes again.
Model Predictive Control (MPC) is an optimal controller with a receding horizon, and it is well known for its ability to handle multivariable control problems for linear systems with input and state limits. The MPC controller can anticipate future events and can take control actions accordingly, especially if disturbances are known in advance. The main difficulty when applying MPC to thermal management is the non-linearity caused by changes in flow rate. Manipulating both the water pump and valve improves the control authority, but it also amplifies the nonlinearity of the system.
Common linearization approaches like Jacobian Linearization around one or several operating points are tested, by found to be only moderately successful. Instead, a novel approach is pursued using feedback linearization of the plant model. This uses an algebraic transformation of the plant inputs to turn the nonlinear systems dynamics into a fully or predominantly linear system. The MPC controller can work with the linear model, while the actual control inputs are found using an inverse transformation.
The Feedback Linearization MPC of the cooling system model is implemented and testing using MathWork Simulink®. The process includes the model transformation approach, model fitting, the transformation of the constraints and the tuning of the MPC controller. The simulation shows good temperature tracking performance, and this demonstrates that a MPC controller with feedback linearization is a suitable approach to thermal management. The controller strategy is then validated in a test rig replicating an actual engine cooling system.
The new MPC controller is again evaluated over the eight driving cycles. The average water pump speed is reduced by 9.1% compared to the conventional cooling system, while maintaining good temperature tracking. The controller performance further improves with future disturbance anticipation by 20.5% for the temperature tracking (calculated by RMSE), 6.8% reduction of the average water pump speed, 47.3% reduction of the average valve movement and 34.0% reduction of the average radiator fan speed.|
|Description: ||A Doctoral Thesis. Submitted in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the award of Doctor of Philosophy of Loughborough University.|
|Sponsor: ||University Kuala Lumpur|
|Appears in Collections:||PhD Theses (Aeronautical and Automotive Engineering) |
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