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Title: Common modality effects in immediate free recall and immediate serial recall
Authors: Grenfell-Essam, Rachel
Ward, Geoff
Tan, Lydia
Keywords: Free recall
Serial recall
Modality effects
Inverse modality effects
Output interference
Issue Date: 2017
Publisher: American Psychological Association © The Author(s)
Citation: GRENFELL-ESSAM, R., WARD, G. and TAN, L., 2017. Common modality effects in immediate free recall and immediate serial recall. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory, and Cognition, 43 (12), pp. 1909-1933.
Abstract: In two experiments, participants were presented with lists of between 2 and 12 words for either immediate free recall (IFR) or immediate serial recall (ISR). Auditory recall advantages at the end of the list (modality effects) and visual recall advantages early in the list (inverse modality effects) were observed in both tasks and the extent and magnitude of these effects were dependent upon list length. Both tasks displayed modality effects with short lists that were large in magnitude but limited to the final serial position, consistent with those observed in the typically short lists used in ISR, and both tasks displayed modality effects with longer lists that were small in magnitude and more extended across multiple end-of-list positions, consistent with those observed in the typically longer lists used in IFR. Inverse modality effects were also observed in both tasks at early list positions on longer lengths. Presentation modality did not affect where recall was initiated, but modality effects were greatest on trials where participants initiated recall with the first item. We argue for a unified account of IFR and ISR. We also assume that the presentation modality affects the encoding of all list items, and that modality effects emerge due to the greater resistance of auditory items to output interference.
Description: This paper was accepted for publication in the journal Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory, and Cognition and the definitive published version is available at https://doi.org/10.1037/xlm0000430. This article may not exactly replicate the final version published in the APA journal. It is not the copy of record.
Sponsor: Experiment 1 was supported by a 1+3 competitive postgraduate studentship (ESRC ES/GO14205/1) granted by the Economic & Social Research Council, UK to the first author under the supervision of the second author. Experiment 1 was presented at the Experimental Psychology Society conference (Bristol, UK) in July 2012.
Version: Accepted for publication
DOI: 10.1037/xlm0000430
URI: https://dspace.lboro.ac.uk/2134/24445
Publisher Link: https://doi.org/10.1037/xlm0000430
ISSN: 0278-7393
Appears in Collections:Published Articles (Sport, Exercise and Health Sciences)

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