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Title: The effects of activated carbon surface features on the reactive adsorption of carbamazepine and sulfamethoxazole
Authors: Nielsen, Lilja
Biggs, Mark J.
Skinner, William
Bandosz, Teresa J.
Issue Date: 2014
Publisher: © Elsevier
Citation: NIELSEN, L., 2014. The effects of activated carbon surface features on the reactive adsorption of carbamazepine and sulfamethoxazole. Carbon, 80(1), pp. 419-432.
Abstract: © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.Two commercial carbons, coconut shell- and wood-based were chosen to evaluate the mechanisms of carbamazepine (CBZ) and sulfamethoxazole (SMX) adsorption from a low (ppm level) concentration of these pharmaceuticals. The initial sample and those after adsorption were extensively characterized using potentiometric titration, thermal analysis combined with mass spectroscopy, FTIR, and XPS. It was found that not only porosity but also surface chemistry plays an important role in the adsorption process. The results show that extensive surface reactions take place during adsorption and adsorbates undergo significant transformations in the pore system. The ability of carbon surfaces to form superoxide ions results in the oxidation of CBZ and SMX, and their partial decomposition. Surface chemistry also promotes dimerization of the latter species. Moreover, functional groups of CBZ and SMX, mainly amines, react with oxygen groups of the carbon surface. Thus not only microporous carbons with sizes of pores similar to those of adsorbate molecules, but the carbons with large pores, rich in oxygen groups, can efficiently remove these pharmaceuticals following the reactive adsorption mechanism.
Description: This paper was accepted for publication in the journal Carbon and the definitive published version is available at http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.carbon.2014.08.081
Sponsor: This publication was made possible by USEPA grant (RD835178).
Version: Accepted for publication
DOI: 10.1016/j.carbon.2014.08.081
URI: https://dspace.lboro.ac.uk/2134/25140
Publisher Link: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.carbon.2014.08.081
ISSN: 0008-6223
Appears in Collections:Published Articles (Chemistry)

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