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Title: Multiple melt plumes observed at the Breioamerkurjokull ice face in the upper waters of Jokulsarlon lagoon, Iceland
Authors: Brandon, Mark A.
Hodgkins, Richard
Bjornsson, H.
Olafsson, Jon
Keywords: Atmosphere/ice/ocean interactions
Glacier discharge
Ice/ocean interactions
Polar and subpolar oceans
Issue Date: 2017
Publisher: Cambridge University Press (CUP) © The Author(s)
Citation: BRANDON, M.A. ... et al, 2017. Multiple melt plumes observed at the Breioamerkurjokull ice face in the upper waters of Jokulsarlon lagoon, Iceland. Annals of Glaciology, doi:10.1017/aog.2017.10.
Abstract: Breioamerkurjokull flows from the Vatnajokull ice cap and calves into the Jokulsarlon proglacial lagoon. The lagoon is connected to the North Atlantic Ocean through a 6 m deep narrow channel. Four hydrographic surveys in spring 2012, and a 2011 4-month long temperature and salinity time series of lagoon inflow show that the lake has significantly changed since 1976. Warm saline ocean water enters each tidal cycle and descends below the maximum sampled depths. The lagoon has a surface layer of ice melt, freshwater and Atlantic derived water. Beneath 10 m depth an advective/diffusive balance is responsible for determining the temperature and salinity of the lagoon waters down to ~90 m. To maintain the observed hydrographic structure, we calculate an upwelling of deep water of ~0.2 m d−1. A survey within 30 m of Breioamerkurjokull showed that the warmest and most saline waters sampled within the lagoon below 10 m depth were adjacent to the glacier face, along with multiple interleaved warm and cold layers. A heat and salt balance model shows that submarine melting along the ice face generates multiple meltwater plumes that are mixed and diluted within 200 m of the ice face.
Description: This is an Open Access Article. It is published by Cambridge University Press under the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International Licence (CC BY). Full details of this licence are available at: http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/
Sponsor: Financial support for fieldwork was provided by the Open University, the School of Social, Political and Geographical Sciences, Loughborough University and by the Percy Sladen Memorial Fund, Linnean Society of London.
Version: Published
DOI: 10.1017/aog.2017.10
URI: https://dspace.lboro.ac.uk/2134/25729
Publisher Link: http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/aog.2017.10
ISSN: 1727-5644
Appears in Collections:Published Articles (Geography)

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