Loughborough University
Leicestershire, UK
LE11 3TU
+44 (0)1509 263171
Loughborough University

Loughborough University Institutional Repository

Please use this identifier to cite or link to this item: https://dspace.lboro.ac.uk/2134/25974

Title: The microstructure of thin film CdTe absorber layers deposited by pulsed dc magnetron sputtering
Authors: Kaminski, Piotr M.
Abbas, Ali
Yilmaz, Sibel
Walls, Michael
Keywords: CdS
Thin film
Solar cell
Pulsed dc power
Magnetron sputtering
Electron microscopy
Issue Date: 2016
Publisher: © IEEE
Citation: KAMINSKI, P.M. ... et al, 2016. The microstructure of thin film CdTe absorber layers deposited by pulsed dc magnetron sputtering. Presented at the 43rd IEEE Photovoltiacs Specialist Conference (PVSC) 2016, Portland, OR, USA, 5th-10th June 2016, pp. 1564-1569.
Abstract: High rate pulsed DC magnetron sputtering has been used to fabricate thin film CdTe photovoltaic devices. Fabrication of thin film photovoltaic devices using magnetron sputtering has the advantages of excellent coating uniformity and use of lower substrate temperatures during deposition. The CdTe and CdS layers were deposited from compound targets. The substrates were held at 200ºC during deposition, a process condition previously found to minimize the stress in the coatings. The devices were deposited using rotation to provide coatings with exceptionally uniformity. This enabled the CdTe absorber thickness to be reduced to ~1μm. The microstructure of the as-deposited material is dense and columnar. The cadmium chloride activation treatment results in an increase in grain size and it also removes the majority of planar defects. However, void formation has been observed which becomes more severe with increasing time of the activation process. In some cases the void formation leads to catastrophic failure and delamination at the CdS/CdTe junction. The microstructure of the films has been characterized before and after activation using a number of techniques including High Resolution Transmission Electron Microscopy of device cross-sections. The observations made have been correlated to device performance.
Description: This paper is closed access.
Sponsor: The authors are grateful to the EPSRC Supergen SuperSolar Hub for funding. They are also grateful for ongoing collaboration with the NSF Industrial/UCRC for Next Generation Photovoltaics at Colorado State University.
Version: Published
DOI: 10.1109/PVSC.2016.7749883
URI: https://dspace.lboro.ac.uk/2134/25974
Publisher Link: https://doi.org/10.1109/PVSC.2016.7749883
ISBN: 9781509027248
Appears in Collections:Closed Access (Mechanical, Electrical and Manufacturing Engineering)

Files associated with this item:

File Description SizeFormat
PVSC-2016-432.pdfPublished version1.3 MBAdobe PDFView/Open


SFX Query

Items in DSpace are protected by copyright, with all rights reserved, unless otherwise indicated.