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Title: Effects of stress and electromigration on microstructural evolution in microbumps of three-dimensional integrated circuits
Authors: Xiong, Hua
Huang, Zhiheng
Conway, Paul P.
Keywords: Interconnections
Tin compounds
Issue Date: 2014
Publisher: © IEEE
Citation: XIONG, H., HUANG, Z. and CONWAY, P., 2014. Effects of stress and electromigration on microstructural evolution in microbumps of three-dimensional integrated circuits. IEEE Transactions on Device and Materials Reliability, 14 (4), pp.995-1004
Abstract: Due to geometric scaling, the heterogeneous and anisotropic microstructures present in through-silicon vias and microbumps must be considered in the stress management of 3-D integrated circuits. In this paper, a phase field model is developed to investigate the effects of stress and electromigration on microstructural evolution in a Cu/Sn-microbump/Cu structure at 150 °C. External compressive stress is observed to accelerate the growth of Cu3Sn grains and cause the separation of continuous interfacial Cu 6 Sn 5 grains by β-Sn grains, whereas tensile stress promotes the growth of Cu 6 Sn 5 grains and the formation of a continuous Cu 6 Sn 5 layer. The roughness of the β-Sn-Cu 6 Sn 5 interface under compressive stress is greater than that under tensile stress. The morphological evolution of the β-Sn grains is also affected by stress. An external shear or compressive stress favors the growth of the β-Sn grains with their c-axis particular to the Y -direction. Furthermore, the interdiffusion flux driven by electromigration increases the roughness of the interfacial Cu 6 Sn 5 grains at the cathode. The strain caused by electromigration results in larger β-Sn grains, enabling faster interdiffusion along the current direction. The preferential growth of the β-Sn grains under stress or electromigration decreases the shear modulus of microbumps.
Description: © 2014 IEEE. Personal use of this material is permitted. Permission from IEEE must be obtained for all other uses, in any current or future media, including reprinting/republishing this material for advertising or promotional purposes, creating new collective works, for resale or redistribution to servers or lists, or reuse of any copyrighted component of this work in other works.
Version: Accepted for publication
DOI: 10.1109/TDMR.2014.2356714
URI: https://dspace.lboro.ac.uk/2134/26074
Publisher Link: http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/TDMR.2014.2356714
ISSN: 1530-4388
Appears in Collections:Published Articles (Mechanical, Electrical and Manufacturing Engineering)

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