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Title: Estimation of transportation battery second life for use in electricity grid systems
Authors: Strickland, Dani
Chittock, Laurence
Stone, D.A.
Foster, Martin P.
Price, Brian
Keywords: Smart grids
Electric vehicles (EVs)
Energy storage
Frequency response
Issue Date: 2014
Publisher: © IEEE
Citation: STRICKLAND, D. ...et al., 2014. Estimation of transportation battery second life for use in electricity grid systems. IEEE Transactions on Sustainable Energy, 5(3), pp. 795-803.
Abstract: This paper presents research from part of a larger project focusing on the potential development of commercial opportunities for the reuse of batteries on the electricity grid system, subsequent to their primary use in low and ultra-low carbon vehicles, and investigating the life cycle issues surrounding the batteries. The work has three main areas; examination of electric vehicle fleet data in detail to investigate usage in first life. Batteries that have passed through a battery recycler at the end of their first life have been tested within the laboratory to confirm the general assumption that remaining capacity of 80% after use in transportation is a reasonable assumption as a basis for second-life applications. The third aspect of the paper is an investigation of the equivalent usage for three different second-life applications based on connection to the electricity grid. Additionally, the paper estimates the time to cell failure of the batteries within their second-life application to estimate lifespan for use within commercial investigations. © 2014 IEEE.
Description: © 2014 IEEE. Personal use of this material is permitted. Permission from IEEE must be obtained for all other uses, in any current or future media, including reprinting/republishing this material for advertising or promotional purposes, creating new collective works, for resale or redistribution to servers or lists, or reuse of any copyrighted component of this work in other works.
Version: Accepted for publication
DOI: 10.1109/TSTE.2014.2303572
URI: https://dspace.lboro.ac.uk/2134/26709
Publisher Link: https://doi.org/10.1109/TSTE.2014.2303572
ISSN: 1949-3029
Appears in Collections:Published Articles (Mechanical, Electrical and Manufacturing Engineering)

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