ROBERTS, S. (2000). Migration and social security : parochialism in the global village Paper presented to the International Social Security Association (ISSA) Year 2000 International Research Conference on Social Security. 25-27 September, Helsinki
The increasingly global characteristic of migration has considerable implications for social
This paper looks at both the direct effect of immigration status on benefit eligibility, and the
effect of benefit entitlement conditions themselves on third country nationals in the fifteen
member countries of the European Union (EU) at different stages of settlement. It
analyses each country’s benefit entitlement conditions by nationality criteria, contribution
requirements and stipulations about years of residence, and the requirement to be present in
The paper draws attention to the important distinction between contributory and noncontributory
benefits, with the latter tending to be less open to migrants and less likely to be
included in international agreements; the lack of agreements between EU member countries
and some sending countries with large stocks and flows; and suggests that the social security
arrangements in the EU member countries create a hierarchy of statuses for migrants which
may exclude those migrants who are most in need.
Finally the paper examines the European Commission’s proposal to extend Regulation
(EEC) 1408/71 to include third country nationals and concludes that the proposal moves
beyond the principle of reciprocity towards a more inclusive conception of European citizenship.