Soil moisture available to crops is among the main constraints on crop production by smallholder
farmers in semi-arid Zimbabwe. Other restrictions, such as limited use of fertilisers and herbicides,
stem primarily from socio-economic rather than biophysical constraints. To improve smallholder
farming, it is essential to promote soil and water conservation practices (SWC) that consider
farmers' management constraints, such as limited availability of labour and Draught Animal Power
A Doctoral Thesis. Submitted in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the award of Doctor of Philosophy at Loughborough University.