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Title: A feasibility study to investigate caking in washing powder formulations using a Freeman FT4 powder rheometer
Authors: Leaper, Mark C.
Fisk, E.
Browne, R.
Issue Date: 2017
Publisher: © Taylor & Francis
Citation: LEAPER, M.C., FISK, E. and BROWNE, R., 2017. A feasibility study to investigate caking in washing powder formulations using a Freeman FT4 powder rheometer. Particulate Science and Technology, In Press.
Abstract: Because of legislation and environmental concerns, washing powder manufacturers have phased out phosphate builders in favour of substitutes such as sodium carbonate. This has meant that the new formulations have a greater tendency towards unwanted agglomeration (caking), based on moisture uptake and migration. This study examines the feasibility of using a Freeman FT4 powder rheometer to examine the effect of moisture migration, using the Basic Flow Energy (BFE) value to compare formulations of sodium carbonate content 27-37% and sodium sulphate content 10-20% by mass after 7 days exposure to 80% relative humidity at 20°C. The results showed that 31% and 33% sodium carbonate formulations were the most resistant to caking, with 27% and 37% being the most susceptible under the test conditions. Using the method of Brockbank et al. (2015), the FT4 was also used to detect the presence of a hard crust; under the test conditions, no hard crust was found. However, the presence of soft caking was detected in the force-height profile, showing a less abrupt transition.
Description: This paper is closed access until 16 Feb 2019
Version: Accepted for publication
DOI: 10.1080/02726351.2017.1409302
URI: https://dspace.lboro.ac.uk/2134/27580
Publisher Link: https://doi.org/10.1080/02726351.2017.1409302
ISSN: 0272-6351
Appears in Collections:Closed Access (Chemical Engineering)

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