Roughing filtration is a simple, efficient and chemical free water treatment
method for turbidity removal; it can be used as a pre-treatment method prior to slow
sand filters or disinfection with chlorine. The main disadvantage of roughing
filtration for use in emergency situations is that it uses gravel as a filter medium.
Gravel may be unavailable or difficult to transport because of its weight. [Continues.]
A Master's Thesis. Submitted in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the award of Master of Philosophy at Loughborough University.