NISSEN-PETERSEN, E., 1997. Water from sand-rivers. IN: Pickford, J. et al. (eds). Water and sanitation for all - Partnerships and innovations: Proceedings of the 23rd WEDC International Conference, Durban, South Africa, 1-5 September 1997, pp.394-396.
For thousands of years, people have survived through dry seasons by scooping water-holes in sand-rivers in ecological zones ranging from semi-arid to desert. Even today, many rural people use water-holes in sand-rivers as their only water source for domestic use, watering livestock and small-scale irrigation.