FLEISCHER, L. and KUFLEITNER, M., 2018. Green’s relations in deterministic finite automata. Theory of Computing Systems, In Press.
Green’s relations are a fundamental tool in the structure theory of semigroups. They can be defined by reachability in the (right/left/twosided) Cayley graph. The equivalence classes of Green’s relations then correspond to the strongly connected components. We study the complexity of Green’s relations in semigroups generated by transformations on a
finite set. We show that, in the worst case, the number of equivalence classes is in the same order of magnitude as the number of elements.
Another important parameter is the maximal length of a chain of strongly connected components. Our main contribution is an exponential lower bound for this parameter. There is a simple construction for an arbitrary
set of generators. However, the proof for a constant size alphabet is rather involved. We also investigate the special cases of unary and binary alphabets. All these results are extended to deterministic finite automata and their syntactic semigroups.
This journal article is part of the following topical collections: Computer Science Symposium in Russia, it is in closed access until 12th Feb 2019.
This work was supported by the DFG grant DI 435/5-2.