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Title: Atomic force microscopic measurement of a used cylinder liner for prediction of boundary friction
Authors: Bewsher, Stephen R. (Rickie)
Leighton, Michael
Mohammadpour, Mahdi
Rahnejat, Homer
Offner, Gunter
Knaus, O.
Keywords: Boundary friction
Atomic force microscope (AFM)
Lubricant-surface combination
Cylinder liner
Piston ring lubrication
Issue Date: 2018
Publisher: SAGE Publications (IMechE)
Citation: BEWSHER, S.R. ...et al., 2018. Atomic force microscopic measurement of a used cylinder liner for prediction of boundary friction. Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers, Part D: Journal of Automobile Engineering, 233 (7), pp. 1879-1889.
Abstract: Accurate simulation performs a crucial role in the design and development of new modern internal combustion engines. In the case of piston rings, simulations are used to effectively predict generated friction and power loss of proposed designs. These are consequences of viscous shear of a thin lubricant film, likewise boundary friction caused by direct interaction of piston rings with the cylinder liner/bore surface. The most commonly used model for determining boundary friction is that of Greenwood and Tripp. The model requires the pressure coefficient of boundary shear strength of asperities from the softer of the contacting surfaces as an input. This parameter needs to be measured. The paper describes the process of measurement using an Atomic Force Microscope (AFM), both for a dry surface and that wetted by the presence of a lubricant layer. For realistic results, the investigated specimen is a used, tested engine cylinder liner where boundary active lubricant additives are bonded to its surface as well as combustion products. This approach is as opposed to the previously reported works using new flat surfaces with base oil or partially formulated lubricants, and has not previously been reported in literature. The results show that for used cylinder liners, the measured boundary shear strength of asperities varies according to location along the stroke. Results are reported for the Top Dead Centre, Mid-stroke and Bottom Dead Centre locations. The measurements are subsequently used with 2D Reynolds Solution for a top compression ring-liner contact, where it is found that accurate localised predictions of generated friction and power loss can be made instead of the usual average value approach reported in literature.
Description: This article was published in the journal Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers, Part D: Journal of Automobile Engineering (SAGE IMechE) and the definitive version is available at: https://doi.org/10.1177/0954407018792143
Sponsor: The authors are grateful for the financial and technical support received from the Engineering and Physical Sciences Research Council (EPSRC) and AVL List throughout this study.
Version: Accepted for publication
DOI: 10.1177/0954407018792143
URI: https://dspace.lboro.ac.uk/2134/33956
Publisher Link: https://doi.org/10.1177/0954407018792143
ISSN: 0954-4070
Appears in Collections:Published Articles (Mechanical, Electrical and Manufacturing Engineering)

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