ENOCH, M.P. and WARREN, J.P., 2003. Necessity nudges Cuba towards a less transport intensive society. Traffic engineering and control, 44(8), pp. 278-281
When the Soviet Union collapsed in the early 1990s, a State of Emergency was declared in
Cuba. Imports of oil and transport equipment suffered a steep decline and as a result there
has been a transformation in how goods and people are moved, resulting in a number of
innovative behavioural and technological outcomes. Dr Marcus Enoch of Loughborough
University and Dr James Warren of the Open University report from Havana.