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Title: The threshold ambient temperature for the use of pre-cooling to improve cycling time trial performance
Authors: Faulkner, Steve H.
Broekhuijzen, Iris
Raccuglia, Margherita
Hupperets, Maarten
Hodder, S.G.
Havenith, George
Keywords: Cycling
Skin temperature
Core temperature
Issue Date: 2018
Publisher: Human Kinetics
Citation: FAULKNER,, S.H. ... et al., 2018. The threshold ambient temperature for the use of pre-cooling to improve cycling time trial performance. International Journal of Sports Physiology and Performance, In Press.
Abstract: Purpose. Cycling time trial performance can be compromised by moderate to high ambient temperatures. It has become commonplace to implement pre-cooling prior to competition to alleviate this performance decline. However, little is known about the ambient temperature threshold above which pre-cooling becomes an effective strategy for enhancing endurance performance. It was the aim of this study to investigate the effect of pre-cooling in different environmental temperatures on time trial performance. Methods. Trained cyclists completed two time trials with (COLD) and without (CON) pre-cooling using an ice-vest and sleeves ensemble in ambient temperatures of 24˚C, 27˚C and 35˚C. Results. Time trial performance faster following COLD in both 35˚C (6.2%) and 27˚C (2.6%; both P<0.05) but not 24˚C (1.2%). Magnitude based inferential statistics indicate that COLD was very likely beneficial to performance in 35˚C and likely beneficial in 27˚C and possibly beneficial in 24°C. Mean power was 2.4%, 2.5% and 5.6% higher following COLD and considered to be likely beneficial in 24°C and very likely beneficial in 27˚C and 35˚C. COLD reduced mean skin temperature throughout the warm-up and into the time trial in all ambient temperatures (P<0.05). Sweat loss was lower following COLD in 24˚C and 27˚C but not 35˚C. There was no effect of COLD on gastrointestinal temperature at any point. Conclusions. Pre-cooling with an ice-vest and sleeves is likely to have a positive effect on time trial performance at temperatures above 24˚C, with a clear relationship between ambient temperature and the magnitude of effect of pre-cooling
Description: Accepted author manuscript version reprinted, by permission, from International Journal of Sports Physiology and Performance, 2018, https://doi.org/10.1123/ijspp.2018-0310. © Human Kinetics, Inc
Version: Accepted for publication
DOI: 10.1123/ijspp.2018-0310
URI: https://dspace.lboro.ac.uk/2134/34285
Publisher Link: https://doi.org/10.1123/ijspp.2018-0310
ISSN: 1555-0273
Appears in Collections:Published Articles (Design School)

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