Sludge is one of the main critical environmental problems in the Gaza Strip. More
than 400 m³/day of aerobic sludge and approximately 50,000 m³/year of anaerobic
sludge are disposed of into the environment without any treatment. The random
disposal of sludge pollutes the groundwater aquifer, contaminates the agricultural
products and impacts the health of residents. Three new treatment plants will be
constructed in the Gaza Strip to replace the existing ones. The activated sludge system
is the proposed treatment technology instead of the existing stabilization ponds and
aerated lagoon. It has been estimated that more than 3,700 m³ of raw sludge will be
generating daily by the year 2025 in the Gaza Strip.
Experiences of using reed bed· systems for sludge dewatering in many places in
Europe and USA, together with monitoring results of a three-year pilot project in the
Gaza Strip circumstances are promising. A reed bed system is easy to operate and
maintain, and is financially attractive compared with conventional drying beds. A
reed bed system can be used for a three-year cycle with an average hydraulic loading
rate of 40 cm every two-weeks. [Continues.]
A Doctoral Thesis. Submitted in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the award of the degree of Doctor of Philosophy at Loughborough University.