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Title: Water based spray pyrolysis of metal-oxide solutions for Cu2ZnSn(S,Se)4 solar cells using low toxicity amine/thiol complexants
Authors: Wright, Lewis D.
Lowe, Jamie
Bliss, Martin
Tsai, Vincent
Togay, Mustafa
Betts, Thomas R.
Walls, Michael
Malkov, Andrei V.
Bowers, Jake W.
Keywords: Kesterite
Water based
Low toxicity
Issue Date: 2018
Publisher: © the Authors. Published by Elsevier
Citation: WRIGHT, L.D. ... et al., 2018. Water based spray pyrolysis of metal-oxide solutions for Cu2ZnSn(S,Se)4 solar cells using low toxicity amine/thiol complexants. Thin Solid Films, 669, pp. 588-594.
Abstract: Cu ZnSnS(e) 2 4 deposited using solution processes has potential for terrawatt-scale deployment. The champion highest efficiency Cu ZnSn(S,Se) 2 4 cell published in literature is spin-coated using the highly dangerous hydrazine which is an impractically scalable solvent and deposition combination. As an alternative solvent amine-thiol mixtures have shown to complex with a wide range of binary chalcogenides with much lower health risks than hydrazine. Herein we present two further toxicity reductions, first by employing a less harmful amine-thiol pairing and second by using water as a diluting solvent. We exclude extraneous elements from the precursor solution such as halogens and with a sub-micron thickness crystalline absorber achieve an efficiency of 6.8 %. With the modified solution deposited by ultrasonic spray pyrolysis, this solution process is scalable, abundant, and relatively non-toxic.
Description: This is an Open Access Article. It is published by Elsevier under the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 Unported Licence (CC BY). Full details of this licence are available at: http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/
Sponsor: The authors would like to acknowledge the EPSRC for funding through the Centre for Doctoral Training in New and Sustainable Photovoltaics [grant number EP/L01551X/1] and The PVTEAM project [grant number EP/L017792/1] to support this work.
Version: Published
DOI: 10.1016/j.tsf.2018.11.040
URI: https://dspace.lboro.ac.uk/2134/36354
Publisher Link: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.tsf.2018.11.040
ISSN: 0040-6090
Appears in Collections:Published Articles (Chemistry)

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