MEEK, S., ISON, S.G. and ENOCH, M.P., 2008. The role of bus-based Park and Ride in the UK: a temporal and evaluative review. Transport Reviews, 28(6), pp.781-803.
The number of bus-based Park and Ride schemes in the UK has grown substantially
over the past 40 years as a result of its encouragement by the Government as a tool to
deal with increasing traffic congestion and traffic-related pollution. The aim of this
paper is to analyse the degree to which Park and Ride is effective in the contemporary
policy context. The authors identify phases of development of Park and Ride since its
emergence as a local solution to transport capacity constraints in historic towns.
Policy goals are identified against which a review of literature is used to highlight its
effectiveness. It is concluded that Park and Ride may increase the distance travelled
by its users due to low load factors on dedicated buses, public transport abstraction
and trip generation, although it is highlighted that there are areas in which further
research is required to clarify its impacts.