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Title: An availability approach to thermal energy recovery in vehicles
Authors: Stobart, Richard
Keywords: Thermal energy recovery
Fuel economy
Hybrid vehicles
Heat transfer
Thermodynamic cycles
Issue Date: 2007
Publisher: Professional Engineering Publishing / © IMechE
Citation: STOBART, R.K., 2007. An availability approach to thermal energy recovery in vehicles. Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers, Part D: Journal of Automobile Engineering, 221 (9), pp. 1107-1124
Abstract: Availability is a well-established and widely recognized way of describing the work-producing potential of energy systems. A first-law analysis is helpful in setting the energy context and ensuring that energy flows balance, but it is a second-law analysis based on availability that places an upper bound on the potential work output. In this analysis a new approach to thermal management intended for vehicle propulsion is examined and developed. Starting with a simple analysis of the chemical energy flow, a realistic heat exchange performance is introduced to establish a practical architecture. Within this framework, the availability analysis shows that effective thermal efficiencies of between 25 and 30 per cent are feasible. With a spark ignition engine operating at a high load condition, and the thermal recovery system at an operating pressure of 100 bar, the maximum efficiency possible with a steady flow work-producing device is 37 per cent (with fully reversible thermodynamic processes). In a water-based thermal recovery system, work could only reasonably be produced with heat transfer from a reservoir at the saturation temperature corresponding to the operating pressure. At 100 bar the maximum efficiency would be 33 per cent. In a different mode of operation, where heat is transferred incrementally to a thermal accumulator and work produced as required, the efficiency is 32 per cent at only 20 bar operating pressure. These efficiency values apply to work production to supplement a combustion engine at any operating condition. An analysis of a reciprocating expander as the work-producing device shows substantial flexibility in operation. Control of system operating pressure is shown to be of value in that periodic adjustments enhance the availability content of the thermal reservoir. The operating pressure of a fluid power system is related to the temperature of operation, and therefore the heat transfer processes. Choice of too high a pressure leads to reduced heat transfer, and ultimately a reduction in work output. There is an optimum condition that can be selected at design time and maintained during the running of the system.
Description: This is an article from the journal, Proceedings of the IMechE, Part D: Journal of Automobile Engineering [© IMechE]. It is also available at: http://journals.pepublishing.com/content/119783/?p=8e9dfdbb198b467e81f439825cfb8f01&pi=0
Version: Published
DOI: 10.1243/09544070JAUTO463
URI: https://dspace.lboro.ac.uk/2134/4780
ISSN: 0954-4070
Appears in Collections:Published Articles (Aeronautical and Automotive Engineering)

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