MICHAIL, K. ... et al, 2009. Fault Tolerant Control for EMS systems with sensor failure. IN: IEEE 17th Mediterranean Conference on Control and Automation, Thessaloniki, Greece, 24-26 June, pp. 712-717.
The paper presents a method to recover the performance of an EMS (Electromagnetic suspension) under faulty air gap measurement. The controller is a combination of classical control loops, a Kalman estimator and analytical redundancy (for the air gap signal). In case of a faulty air gap sensor the air gap signal is recovered using the Kalman filter and analytical redundancy. Simulations verify the proposed sensor Fault Tolerant Control (FTC) method for the EMS system.