NOLAND, R.B. and QUDDUS, M.A., 2004. A spatially disaggregate analysis of road casualties in England. Accident Analysis and Prevention, 36(6), pp. 973-984.
Spatially disaggregate ward level data for England is used in an analysis of various area-wide factors on road casualties. Data on 8414 wards was input into a geographic information system that contained data on land use types, road characteristics and road casualties. Demographic data on area-wide deprivation (the index of multiple deprivation) for each ward was also included. Negative binomial count data models were used to analyze the associations between these factors with traffic fatalities, serious injuries and slight injuries. Results suggest that urbanized areas are associated with fewer casualties (especially fatalities) while areas of higher employment density are associated with more casualties. More deprived areas tend to have higher levels of casualties, though not of motorized casualties (except slight injuries). The effect of road characteristics are less significant but there are some positive associations with the density of “A” and “B” level roads.