AL-QALLAF, B. ... et al, 2009. Transdermal drug delivery by microneedles: does skin metabolism matter? International Journal of Chemical Reactor Engineering, 7, article A69 (pp.1-23).
Microneedle arrays have been shown to increase skin permeability for the
transdermal delivery of drugs with high molecular weights. Various theoretical
studies have been proposed to predict the drug transport behaviour after drug injection
using microneedles. However it is important for the optimal design of
microneedle systems to consider the effects of biological factors such as skin
metabolism and variations in pharmacokinetic parameters as well as to improve
the enhancement of skin permeability. A mathematical model for microneedle
systems is introduced and applied to simulate the verapamil transport with metabolism
in the skin. A comparative analysis for a transdermal delivery of verapamil from
microneedles is presented in this paper. The results indicate that the skin metabolism
does not markedly affect the skin permeation after verapamil injection using microneedles.