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|Title: ||Thermosonic ball bonding: a study of bonding mechanism and interfacial evolution|
|Authors: ||Xu, Hui|
|Keywords: ||Thermosonic ball bonding,
|Issue Date: ||2010|
|Publisher: ||© Hui Xu|
|Abstract: ||Thermosonic ball bonding is a key technology in electrical interconnections between an integrated circuit and an external circuitry in microelectronics. Although this bonding process has been extensively utilised in electronics packaging industry, certain fundamental aspects behind all the practice are still not fully understood. This thesis is intended to address the existing knowledge gap in terms of bonding mechanisms and interfacial characteristics that are involved in thermosonic gold and copper ball bonding on aluminium pads. The research specifically targets the fine pitch interconnect applications where a thin metal wire of approximately 20 µm in diameter is commonly used.
In thermosonic ball bonding process, a thin gold or copper ball formed at the end of a wire is attached to an aluminum pad through a combination of ultrasonic energy, pressure and heat, in order to initiate a complex solid-state reaction. In this research, the mechanisms of thermosonic ball bonding were elaborated by carefully examining interfacial characteristics as the results of the bonding process by utilising dual-beam focused ion beam and high resolution transmission electron microscopy, including the breakdown of the native alumina layer on Al pads, and formation of initial intermetallic compounds (IMCs). The effect of bonding parameters on these interfacial behaviours and bonding strength is also investigated in order to establish an inter-relationship between them.
Interfacial evolution in both Au-Al and Cu-Al bonds during isothermal annealing in the temperature rage from 175ºC to 250ºC was investigated and compared. The results obtained demonstrated that the remnant alumina remains inside IMCs and moves towards the ball during annealing. The IMCs are formed preferentially in the peripheral and the central areas of the bonds during bonding and, moreover, they grow from the initially formed IMC particles. Growth kinetics of Cu-Al IMCs obey a parabolic growth law before the Al pad is completely consumed. The activation energies calculated for the growth of CuAl2, Cu9Al4 and the combination (CuAl2 + Cu9Al4) are 60.66 kJ/mol, 75.61 kJ/mol, and 65.83 kJ/mol, respectively. In Au-Al bonds, Au-Al IMC growth is controlled by diffusion only at the start of the annealing process. A t^0.2-0.3 growth law can be applied to the Au-Al IMC growth after the Al pad is depleted. The sequence of IMC phase transformation in both Au-Al and Cu-Al bonds were investigated. Voids in Au-Al bonds grow dramatically during annealing, however, only a few voids nucleate and grow very slowly in Cu-Al bonds. The mechanisms of void formation, including volumetric shrinkage, oxidation and metal diffusion were proposed and discussed.|
|Description: ||A Doctoral Thesis. Submitted in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the award of Doctor of Philosophy of Loughborough University.|
|Appears in Collections:||PhD Theses (Mechanical, Electrical and Manufacturing Engineering)|
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