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Title: Impact of open de-ionized water thin film laminar immersion on the liquid immersed ablation threshold and ablation rate of features machined by KrF excimer laser ablation of bisphenol A polycarbonate.
Authors: Dowding, Colin F.
Lawrence, Jonathan
Issue Date: 2009
Publisher: © Elsevier
Citation: DOWDING, C.F. and LAWRENCE, J., 2009. Impact of open de-ionized water thin film laminar immersion on the liquid immersed ablation threshold and ablation rate of features machined by KrF excimer laser ablation of bisphenol A polycarbonate. Optics and Lasers in Engineering, 47(11), pp. 1169-1176.
Abstract: Debris control and surface quality are potential major benefits of sample liquid immersion when laser micromachining; however, the use of an immersion technique potentially modifies the ablation mechanism when compared to an ambient air interaction. To investigate the machining characteristics, bisphenol A polycarbonate has been laser machined in air and under a controllable open liquid film. To provide quantitative analysis, ablation threshold, ablation rate and the attenuation coefficient of the immersing DI water fluid were measured. In ambient air the threshold fluence was measured to be 37 mJ.cm-2. Thin film immersion displayed two trends: threshold fluences of 58.6 mJcm-2 and 83.9 mJcm-2. The attenuation of DI water was found to be negligible; thus, the change in ablation rate resulted from increased confinement of the vapour plume by the liquid medium, generating higher Bremsstrahlung attenuation of the beam, lowering the laser etch rate. Simultaneously, splashing motivated by the confined ablation plume allowed release of plume pressure before plume etching commenced. This contributed to the loss of total etching efficiency. Two interaction scenarios were obsereved as a result of splashing: (i) intermediate threshold fluence, where splashing occured after every pulse in a mode that interrupted the flow entirely, leaving an ambient air interaction for the following pulse; (ii) high threshold fluence, where splashing occured for every pulse in a mode that allowed the flow to recommence over the image before the next pulse causing every pulse to experience Bremsstrahlung attenuation. Since attenuation of the immersion liquid was negligible, it is the action of the constrained ablation plume within a thin flowing immersion liquid, the resultant Bremsstrahlung attenuation and splashing events that are the critical mechanisms that modify the primary ablation characteristics.
Description: This article was accepted for publication in the journal, Optics and Lasers in Engineering [© Elsevier] and the definitive version is available from: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.optlaseng.2009.06.009
Version: Accepted for publication
DOI: 10.1016/j.optlaseng.2009.06.009
URI: https://dspace.lboro.ac.uk/2134/6398
ISSN: 0143-8166
Appears in Collections:Published Articles (Mechanical, Electrical and Manufacturing Engineering)

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