NORMAN, E.W.L., 1999. Technology for design: cognitive mismatches and their implications for good practice. The Journal of Design and Technology Education, 4 (1), pp. 32-39
This paper begins by noting some background issues concerning the linking of science and design and technological activities. Some theoretical difficulties in expressing ideas about design and technology are noted and the consequential merits of an empirical approach are exposed. Research findings are presented which help to support the development of a theoretical position in relation to technology for design, in particular introducing the notion of 'cognitive mismatches'. The evidence presented suggests that where significant cognitive mismatches exist between the matters which the designer must resolve (e.g. some are qualitative and modelled visually and some are quantitative and modelled mathematically), then focused practical tasks are essential in order to ensure high quality design outcomes. An invitation is included to participate in a broadly-based research programme in order to document good practice in relation to technology for design and explore associated issues.