Loughborough University
Leicestershire, UK
LE11 3TU
+44 (0)1509 263171
Loughborough University

Loughborough University Institutional Repository

Please use this identifier to cite or link to this item: https://dspace.lboro.ac.uk/2134/6746

Title: Influence of crank length and crank-axle height on standing arm-crank (grinding) power
Authors: Neville, Vernon
Pain, Matthew T.G.
Kantor, Jonathan
Folland, Jonathan P.
Keywords: Hand cycle
Upper body
America’s Cup
Issue Date: 2010
Publisher: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins Inc. (© American College of Sports Medicine (ACSM))
Citation: NEVILLE, V. ... et al, 2010. Influence of crank length and crank-axle height on standing arm-crank (grinding) power. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise, 42 (2), pp. 381-387.
Abstract: To determine the optimal crank length and crank-axle height for maximum power production during standing arm-cranking (‘grinding’). Nine elite professional America’s Cup grinders (age: 36 ± 2 y; body mass: 104 ± 1 kg; body fat 13 ± 2%) performed eight maximal 6 s sprints on an adjustable standing arm-crank ergometer fitted with an SRM powercrank. The protocol included crank lengths of 162, 199, 236 and 273 mm and crank-axle heights of 850, 950, 1050 and 1150 mm. Peak power, ground reaction forces (GRF) and joint angles were determined and compared for different crank lengths and crank-axle heights with repeated-measures ANOVA. Results: Peak power was significantly different between crank lengths (P=0.006), with 162 mm lower than all others (P<0.03). Optimal crank length was 12.3% of arm-span, or 241 ± 9 mm for this cohort of athletes. Peak power was significantly less for the crank-axle height of 850 mm compared to 1150 mm (P=0.01). The optimal crank-axle height for peak power was between 50 and 60% of stature (950-1150 mm in this study). Hip flexion was greater at the lowest crank-axle height (850 mm) than at 1050 and 1150 mm (P<0.01), and the resultant GRF was also reduced compared to all other heights, indicating greater weight bearing by the upper body. Changes in crank length and crank-axle height influence performance during maximal standing arm-crank ergometry. These results, suggest that standard leg-cycle crank lengths are inappropriate for maximal arm-cranking performance. In addition, a crank-axle height of <50% of stature, which is typically used in America’s Cup sailing, may attenuate performance.
Description: This article is a non-final version of an article published in final form in the journal, Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise [© American College of Sports Medicine].
Version: Accepted for publication
DOI: 10.1249/MSS.0b013e3181b2e8b4
URI: https://dspace.lboro.ac.uk/2134/6746
Publisher Link: http://dx.doi.org/10.1249/MSS.0b013e3181b2e8b4
ISSN: 0195-9131
Appears in Collections:Published Articles (Sport, Exercise and Health Sciences)

Files associated with this item:

File Description SizeFormat
neville2010.pdf455.91 kBAdobe PDFView/Open


SFX Query

Items in DSpace are protected by copyright, with all rights reserved, unless otherwise indicated.