Human Reliability Assessments (HRA) have been developed so designers and users can
understand how likely it is for a human to make an error when using a product or
system in the workplace. This is called the reliability of the product. Approximately
twenty-six techniques exist to assess the reliability of an individual human in a process.
However, often a team of people interact within a system and not just one individual on
their own. Hence a new generation of HRAs is needed to assess the effects of teamwork
This EPSRC CASE studentship, supported by BAE systems, develops a prototype,
which enables a designer to quantify and answer to the question: “If I allocate this team
to execute that task in System X, how likely is it that they will succeed?”
This prototype assumes that a process can be defined in the form of a flow diagram and
that roles can be allocated to execute it. Then, using one of those twenty-six
techniques, individual reliabilities can be calculated. These are then modulated, by
considering how the team interaction affects the three core elements of Trust,
Communication and Decision Making Power Distance. This creates an ‘interactive
reliability’ factor for each individual in the team. These individual reliability factors are
combined according to the team architecture for the process in order to determine the
overall team reliability factor.
The methods of development include: stakeholder interviews; the evolution of
requirements specification; sensitivity analysis; and a stakeholder review of the tool.
The information from these analyses produced a model about team interaction and the
requirements for the new tool together with statements and algorithms that need to be
used in the new tool: ROCCI.
This technique is useful for use in the early stages of the design process. The successful
prototype can be extended into applications for operations and used to assess and adapt
products and systems, which involve teams.
A Master’s Thesis submitted in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the award of Master of Philosophy of Loughborough University.