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|Title: ||Optimisation of performance in running jumps|
|Authors: ||Wilson, Cassie|
|Issue Date: ||2003|
|Publisher: ||© Cassie Wilson|
|Abstract: ||Running jumps such as the high jump and the long jump involve complex
movements of the human body. The factors affecting performance include
approach conditions, strength of the athlete and the muscle activation timings at
each joint. In order to investigate the mechanics of jumping performances and the
effect of these factors, an eight-segment, subject specific, torque-driven computer
simulation model of running jumps was developed, evaluated and used to optimise
performances of jumps for height and distance.
Wobbling masses within the shank, thigh and trunk segments, and the
ground-foot interface were modelled as non-linear spring-damper systems. The
values for the stiffness and damping constants were determined through
optimisation. The inertia data were obtained from anthropometric measurements
on the subject using the inertia model of Yeadon (1990b). Joint torques predicted
by the simulation model were expressed as a function of angular velocity and
angle using data collected from an isovelocity dynamometer. The simulation
model was evaluated by comparing the actual performances with simulations
using kinematic and kinetic data collected.
Movement of the wobbling masses was found to be in the region of 40 mm
in the shank and thigh and 90 mm in the trunk. This movement resulted in a
lower, more realistic initial peak in the ground reaction force. Co-contraction was
found to occur at the joints during impact in order to increase the initial level of
eccentric activation and also the rise time to maximum eccentric activation.
Differences of 2% and 1% in the height and distance achieved were obtained
between actual performances and simulations.
An optimisation procedure was used to maximise the height reached and
distance travelled by the mass centre, in simulations of jumps for height and
distance respectively, by varying the torque generator activation time histories at
each joint. An increase of 12% in the height reached by the mass centre in the
jump for height and 14% in the distance reached by the mass centre in the jump
for distance were achieved.|
|Description: ||Doctoral Thesis. Submitted in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the award of Doctor of Philosophy of Loughborough University.|
|Appears in Collections:||PhD Theses (Sport, Exercise and Health Sciences)|
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