The literature review identified the current scientific understanding of element
and lime interactions with clay minerals and the leaching protocols used to assess
contaminant mobility. This understanding formed the basis for the mechanisms
postulated for clay-contaminant-lime interactions and the appropriate methods of
chemically assessing time-dependent interactions.
Two refined clay minerals English China Clay (predominantly kaolinite) and
Wyoming Bentonite (predominantly sodium-montmorillonite) were used to assess the
time-dependent effects of mineral structural chemistry on clay-contaminant-lime
A Doctoral Thesis. Submitted in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the award of Doctor of Philosophy of Loughborough University.