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Title: A design tool for use in simulation and training of sinus surgery
Authors: Taylor, Richard E.
Keywords: Sinus surgery
Surgical training
Additive manufacturing
Rapid prototyping
Customisable training models
Issue Date: 2010
Publisher: © Richard E. Taylor
Abstract: The traditional approaches to training surgeons are becoming increasingly difficult to apply to modern surgical procedures. The development of Minimally Invasive Surgery (MIS) techniques demands new and complex psychomotor skills, and means that the apprentice-based system described by “see one, do one, teach one” can no longer be expected to fully prepare surgeons for operations on real patients, placing patient safety at risk. The use of cadavers and animals in surgical training raises issues of ethics, cost and anatomical similarity to live humans. Endoscopic sinus surgery involves further risk to the patient due to the proximity of vital structures such as the brain, eyes, optic nerve and internal carotid artery. In recent years, simulation has been used to overcome these problems, exposing surgeons to complex procedures in a safe environment, similarly to its use in aviation. However, the cases simulated in this manner may not be customised by training staff to present desired pathology. This thesis describes the design and development of a new tool for the creation of customised cases for the training of sinus surgery. Users who are inexperienced and non-skilled in the use of three-dimensional (3D) Computer Aided Design (CAD) modelling software may use the tool to implement pathology to the virtual sinus model, which was constructed from real CT data. Swelling is applied in five directions (four horizontal, one vertical) to the cavity lining of the frontal and sphenoid sinuses. Tumours are individually customised and positioned in the frontal, sphenoid and ethmoid sinuses. The customised CAD model may then be latterly manufactured using Three-Dimensional Printing (3DP) to produce the complex anatomy of the sinuses in a full colour physical part for the realistic simulation of surgical procedures. An investigation into the colouring of the physical model is also described, involving the study of endoscopic videos to ascertain realistic shades. The program was evaluated by a group of medical professionals from a range of fields, and their feedback was taken into account in subsequent redevelopment of the program, and to suggest further work.
Description: A Doctoral Thesis. Submitted in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the award of Doctor of Philosophy of Loughborough University.
URI: https://dspace.lboro.ac.uk/2134/7294
Appears in Collections:PhD Theses (Mechanical, Electrical and Manufacturing Engineering)

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