Wind turbines connected to the distribution network can be the cause of voltage fluctuations
and resulting fluctuations in the light intensity emitted by light bulbs. These
fluctuations may cause people disturbance.
A model has been developed to obtain a flicker prediction which is useful in the design
process of a wind farm. The model is based exclusively in the frequency domain (FD).
This new approach allows very fast and efficient evaluation. The impact of individual
parameters is often easier to recognise and evaluate in a FD-representation.
The following factors leading to flicker disturbances from a wind farm have been considered
The wind spectrum: Effects of terrain and wind farm wakes on the wind turbulence
spectrum have been considered and existing models have been expanded.
The wind coherence: A new coherence model for large separation distances has been
derived for use within a wind farm. Effects of the terrain on the coherence of power
produced by turbines within a wind farm have been considered.
The wind turbine: A simplified dynamic wind turbine model allows the prediction
of turbine specific contributions to flicker for a variety of wind turbines using a
minimal set of parameters.
The flickermeter: Flicker measurements are found to sometimes neglect the impact
of low frequency voltage variations. These are found to be very important for the
correct flicker prediction. A new FD-flickermeter has been developed.
The model has been validated against experimental data and a sensitivity analysis
shows which parameters are most likely to influence the voltage flicker and which are
best altered to minimise the flicker.
A Doctoral Thesis. Submitted in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the award of Doctor of Philosophy of Loughborough University.