In medicine, ergonomics, the clothing Industry and many other areas
such as the design of 'g' suits for military aeroplane pilots and
protective clothing for chemical warfare, there is a requirement for the
accurate 3-D measurement of the size and shape of the human form.
To meet this need a novel whole body scanner has been designed
which is capable of measuring both the size and shape of people in a
non invasive socially acceptable manner. The scanner uses structured
light and an array of television cameras to view free standing subjects
while they are being rotated on an electrically driven turntable. The
accuracy and repeatability of the scanner is as good as trained
anthropometrists using traditional manual methods.
A computer program has been written which uses a cubic spline
interpolation method to edit and interrogate the data from the scanner
and arrange it in a shape matrix form. This is a new way of arranging
the data which allows for the 3-D average of several bodies to be
obtained and also for the comparison of one body with another. A
technique which is essential if 3-D survey work is to be undertaken.
Using master files which contain information from a data base of
previously scanned people and eight circumferential measurements it
is possible to re-create body forms of any size but which correspond to
the average shape for that size. The re-creation of body shapes from
eight circumferences is accurate enough for the manufacture of all but
the most close fitting garments but may be more useful in the future as
a replacement for somatotyping (physique classification). It is perfectly
possible to manipulate the eight circumferences to create body torsos of
almost any shape. Conversely a torso of almost any shape could be
defined by eight two digit numbers.
A Doctoral Thesis. Submitted in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the award of Doctor of Philosophy of Loughborough University.