In the present energy and CO2 emission conscious climate natural ventilation is
undergoing increasingly intensive research. Buildings located in a sheltered in-fill
location subject to single-sided natural ventilation are a common occurrence.
However, the combination of stack effect and wind effect induced natural ventilation
rates is not well defined. This thesis investigates the influence of wind on a sheltered
building subject to single-sided natural ventilation.
Full-scale experiments were undertaken over a wide variety of prevailing conditions
on a suitable test cell to provide the measurements for the investigation. The analysis
established that the flow/pressure drop relationship representing the airflow across the
boundary of the building was best described by a power law relationship with an index
of n=0.6348, rather than the conventional Bernoulli equation (which reflects a
special case of the power law relationship when the index n=0.5). "Warren" plots,
modified to reflect the power law flow/pressure drop relationship, identified stack
effect dominance for the test cell. However, the wind was shown to influence the
single-sided natural ventilation rates by virtue of the wind direction altering the flow
path through the openings in the building and, so, affecting the flow characteristics of
The investigation enabled a prediction model to be developed whereby the natural
ventilation rates in the test cell subject to single-sided natural ventilation could be
predicted from internal and external temperature and wind direction. Validation of the
model identified an over-prediction for high stack effect driving forces and underprediction
for low driving forces. The over- and under-prediction was concluded to be
the result of incorporating the flow characteristics of the building openings as constant
values. The flow characteristics should be treated as a variable function of wind
direction and the stack effect driving force.
A Doctoral Thesis. Submitted in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the award of Doctor of Philosophy of Loughborough University.