The purpose of this research was to analyse the content and context of tourism
stakeholder management in Negara Brunei Darussalam and to investigate
stakeholder views on tourism management, planning and development.
The author attempted to identify the web of stakeholders as perceived by the
main key groups of players in the tourism industry in the months leading up to the
sultanate's first ever 'Visit Brunei Year 2001'. In addition, she attempted to
investigate the underlying causes of ineffective tourism management in Negara
Brunei Darussalam, which operates under a strict Malay Muslim Monarchy
('Melayu Islam Beraja' or'MIB') system of governance and national philosophy.
Many hold the view that developing the tourism industry in Negara Brunei
Darussalam is a necessary stepping-stone towards diversification from its
dependence on oil and gas. However, very little effort has been made to educate
the general community on its benefits and disadvantages. In addition, only a very
select group of people are directly involved in its planning and development
leading to conflict in the community. Little has been said about real community
support of tourism development and on the impact it may have on its
The present study has attempted to do this. Problems in tourism management,
planning and development are expected to arise because of Negara Brunei
Darussalam's inexperience in this field, lack of coordination and planning
between government and private sectors; and, perhaps due to conflict between
its MIB philosophy and the perceived negative nature of the tourism industry.
Research was conducted in several stages from November 1999 to February
2001. Data collection from the fieldwork was elicited through questionnaires
administered by four trained interviewers in all four districts in Negara Brunei Darussalam and through in-depth interviews with selected tourism stakeholders
by the author.
The author observed that key players of tourism were relatively unaware of the
concept of community participation in tourism development and planning, as well
as the identity of a wider range of tourism stakeholders. The community at large
does support tourism development and planning and expectations for accrual of
tourism revenue and benefits are high. Many in the private sector have voiced
the view that the government should do more to give this industry a boost.
Similarly, the governmental body believes that a pro-active private sector is
needed for sustainability of this industry. An alternative model to western
stakeholder management is proposed that is applicable to this small Muslim
A Doctoral Thesis. Submitted in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the award of Doctor of Philosophy of Loughborough University.