Saving energy and increasing network lifetime are significant challenges in
the field of Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs). Energy-aware routing protocols
have been introduced for WSNs to overcome limitations of WSN including limited
power resources and difficulties renewing or recharging sensor nodes batteries.
Furthermore, the potentially inhospitable environments of sensor locations, in some
applications, such as the bottom of the ocean, or inside tornados also have to be
considered. ZigBee is one of the latest communication standards designed for
WSNs based on the IEEE 802.15.4 standard. The ZigBee standard supports two
routing protocols, the Ad hoc On-demand Distance Vector (AODV), and the
cluster-tree routing protocols. These protocols are implemented to establish the
network, form clusters, and transfer data between the nodes. The AODV and the
cluster-tree routing protocols are two of the most efficient routing protocols in terms
of reducing the control message overhead, reducing the bandwidth usage in the
network, and reducing the power consumption of wireless sensor nodes compared to
other routing protocols. However, neither of these protocols considers the energy
level or the energy consumption rate of the wireless sensor nodes during the
establishment or routing processes. (Continues...).
Doctoral Thesis. Submitted in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the award of Doctor of Philosophy of Loughborough University.