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|Title: ||Environmental impact of fluid catalytic cracking unit in a petroleum refining complex|
|Authors: ||Yateem, Wael|
|Issue Date: ||2011|
|Publisher: ||© Wael Yateem|
|Abstract: ||The fluid catalytic cracking (FCC) unit is of great importance in petroleum refining
industries as it treats heavy fractions from various process units to produce light ends (valuable
products). The FCC unit feedstock consists of heavy hydrocarbon with high sulphur contents and
the catalyst in use is zeolite impregnated with rare earth metals i.e. lanthanum and cerium oxides.
The catalytic cracking reaction is endothermic and takes place at elevated temperature in a
fluidised bed reactor generating sulphur-contaminated coke on the catalyst. In the regenerator,
coke is completely burnt producing SO2, particulate matter emissions. The impact of the FCC
unit is assessed in the immediate neighborhood of the refinery. Emission inventories for years
2008 and 2009 for both SO2 and PM have been calculated based on real operational data.
Comprehensive meteorological data for years 2005 – 2009 are obtained and preprocessed to
generate planetary boundary layer parameters using Aermet (Aermod preprocessor). Aermod
(US EPA approved dispersion model) is applied to predict ground level concentrations of both
pollutants in the selected study area. Model output is validated with the corresponding measured
values at discrete receptors. The highest hourly SO2 predicted concentrations for both years 2008
and 2009 exceeded the corresponding Kuwait EPA ambient air standard, mainly due to elevated
emission rates and the prevailing calm and other meteorological conditions. The highest daily
SO2 predicted concentrations also exceeded the Kuwait EPA allowable limit due to high
emission rates, while meteorological parameters influence is dampened. Hourly average
predicted PM concentrations showed similar variation into SO2 in different location. The daily
average predicted PM concentrations are lower than US EPA specified limit.
An extensive parametric study has been conducted using three scenarios, stack diameter,
stack height and emission rates. It is noticed that stack diameter has no effect on ground level
concentration, as stack exit velocity is a function of the square of stack diameter. With the
increase in stack height, the predicted concentrations decrease showing an inverse relation. The
influence of the emission rate is linearly related to the computed ground level concentrations
SO2 additives are tested for SO2 emissions reduction. In the year 2008, reduction of SO2
annual total emission by 43% results in full compliance with Kuwait EPA hourly specified limit, using an appropriate amount of additives. Similarly, 57% reduction of SO2 annual total emission
leads to no exceedance in predicted concentrations for the year 2009.
The application of the state of the art technology, ESP has reduced about 90% of PM emissions for the year 2009.|
|Description: ||A Doctoral Thesis. Submitted in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the award of Doctor of Philosophy of Loughborough University.|
|Appears in Collections:||PhD Theses (Chemical Engineering)|
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