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Title: Investigation of the effect of relative humidity on additive manufactured polymers by depth sensing indentation
Authors: Altaf, Kazim
Keywords: Element analysis
Creep
Depth sensing indentation
Finite
Moisture diffusion
Relative humidity
Stereolithography
Viscoelasticity
Viscoplasticity
Issue Date: 2011
Publisher: © Kazim Altaf
Abstract: Additive manufacturing methods have been developed from rapid prototyping techniques and are now being considered as alternatives to conventional techniques of manufacturing. Stereolithography is one of the main additive methods and is considered highly accurate and consistent. Polymers are used as stereolithography materials and exhibit features such as high strength-to-weight ratio, corrosion resistance, ease of manufacturing and good thermal and electrical resistance properties. However, they are sensitive to environmental factors such as temperature, moisture and UV light, with moisture being identified as one of the most important factors that affect their properties. Moisture generally has an adverse effect on the mechanical properties of polymers. Investigation of the effects of moisture on polymers can be carried out using a number of experimental techniques; however, the benefits of the depth sensing indentation method over bulk tests include its ability to characterise various mechanical properties in a single test from only a small volume of material and the investigation of spatial variation in mechanical properties near the surface. The aim of this research was to investigate the effects of varying relative humidity on the indentation behaviour of stereolithography polymers and to develop a modelling methodology that can predict this behaviour under various humidities. It was achieved by a combination of experimental and numerical methods. Depth sensing indentation experiments were carried out at 33.5 %, 53.8 %, 75.3 % and 84.5 % RH (relative humidity) and 22.5 °C temperature to investigate the effects of varying humidity on the micron scale properties of the stereolithography resin, Accura 60. In order to minimise the effects of creep on the calculated properties, appropriate loading and unloading rates with suitable dwell period were selected and indentation data was analysed using the Oliver and Pharr method (1992). A humidity control unit fitted to the machine was used to condition the samples and regulate humidity during testing. Samples were also preconditioned at 33.5 %, 53.8 %, 75.3 % and 84.5 % RH using saturated salt solutions and were tested at 33.5 % RH using humidity control unit. It was seen that properties such as indentation depth increased and contact iv hardness and contact modulus decreased with increasing RH. The samples conditioned and tested using the humidity control unit at high RH showed a greater effect of moisture than the preconditioned samples tested at 33.5 % RH. This was because the samples preconditioned at high RH exhibited surface desorption of moisture when tested at ambient RH, resulting in some recovery of the mechanical properties. In order to investigate these further, tests were performed periodically on saturated samples after drying. Ten days drying of samples conditioned for five days at 84.5 % RH provided significant, though not complete, recovery in the mechanical properties. These tests confirmed that Accura 60 is highly hygroscopic and its mechanical properties are a function of RH and removal of moisture leads to a significant recovery of the original mechanical properties.
Description: A Doctoral Thesis. Submitted in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the award of Doctor of Philosophy of Loughborough University.
URI: https://dspace.lboro.ac.uk/2134/8567
Appears in Collections:PhD Theses (Mechanical, Electrical and Manufacturing Engineering)

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